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The mushroom mushroom is very widespread on the territory of Russia, and every mushroom picker regularly meets him in his forest trips. However, the name of the mushroom is not very common, therefore, mushroom pickers, putting the fruit bodies in a basket, often do not even know that they have found stubs.
What is obabok
Not one specific mushroom is called obabk, but a whole genus of mushrooms belonging to the Boletov family. In particular, mushrooms such as boletus and boletus are combined under the name of obabkov; several other species are included in this category.
Boletus and boletus are the same thing or not
According to the classification, boletus are really boletus, they belong to the genus with that name. But at the same time, not every boletus is an ordinary boletus, because other types of mushrooms are also called this word.
In particular, obabks include:
- boletus - gray, or hornbeam, harsh, marsh, black, turning pink and multi-colored;
- aspen boletus - black-scaled, red, white, yellow-brown;
- redheads - spruce, pine and oak;
- Far Eastern and blackening obabki.
All these mushrooms belong to the edible or conditionally edible categories, have similar structural features, but can vary greatly in color.
Where do the butterflies grow
Boletus and boletus boletus, belonging to the genus of bobcats, choose for their growth mainly deciduous forests or mixed plantings. They are ubiquitous in regions with a temperate climate, and also in subtropical and northern regions.
A distinctive feature of the genus is the desire to form a symbiosis with the roots of deciduous trees. Boletus and aspen mushrooms are not found in open spaces, they settle directly under the trunks of aspens, birches, oaks, beeches, hornbeams and other trees.
What does a lump look like
It can be seen in the photo of the stumps that, depending on the specific variety, they may differ in appearance. However, a general description can also be given to this genus of mushrooms.
The hats of the butterflies are rather large, on average 10-15 cm in diameter, most often of a hemispherical convex shape, but sometimes prostrate. The surface of the caps can be felt, velvety or smooth, but they are not shiny, usually their skin is matte.
The caps belong to the category of tubular mushrooms, so the underside of their caps is porous and easily peels off. The tubes themselves are yellowish, grayish or almost white in color, with small pores. In young mushrooms, the tubular layer is lighter; with age, the shade becomes darker.
A cylindrical high leg up to 10 cm and higher is characteristic of the buttresses. A slight thickening is usually observed below, the surface of the leg is fibrous or scaly, for example, like in boletus.
If broken or cut open, its flesh will turn out to be white, but from contact with air it will quickly change color to dark blue, black or reddish. After boiling and subsequent culinary processing, the stumps turn black, for these mushrooms this is completely normal.
Why is obabok so called
The unusual name of the genus is of interest - at first glance it seems completely incomprehensible. The word is deciphered quite simply - in some Russian regions, for example, near Pskov, Novgorod and Arkhangelsk, stumps and fallen trees are called the dialect word "baba".
If "baba" is a stump, then, accordingly, "stumps" are mushrooms growing not far from the stump, around it. It is curious that this word is used only for boletus and aspen mushrooms, although the location near trees is characteristic of many other mushrooms, for example, mushrooms.
Is it possible to eat lumps
Mushrooms from the genus stump are completely suitable for food. Moreover, they belong to the gourmet category, it is considered a great success to collect a full basket of boletus and aspen mushrooms. Processing is required minimal, it is not necessary to soak the fruit bodies for a long time, and the taste of the mushrooms is very pleasant and soft.
The stubs are suitable for any culinary treatment. Most often they are boiled, pickled and fried, and gourmet mushrooms can also be dried. Dried boletus and aspen mushrooms can be stored for a very long time, and they are most often used to add to soups and other hot dishes.
Important! The greatest love of gourmets is not the hats, but the legs of the fruit bodies. Unlike caps, they retain their dense structure well after heat treatment and remain strong and pleasant.
The appearance of the stumps is quite expressive; it is difficult to confuse these mushrooms with other edible or even more poisonous mushrooms. However, the possibility of error still exists, especially for inexperienced gatherers who are just starting to study edible mushrooms.
Most of all, in appearance, the boletus resembles bitterness, it is also called a bile mushroom or false boletus. It is similar in size and structure to edible mushrooms. In particular, the false twin has a large convex hemispherical cap, brown-brown or gray-brown skin color, and a tubular bottom surface of the cap. The gall fungus also grows on a strong cylindrical stem of a light shade.
The main difference between bitterness, which makes it possible to distinguish it from a stump, is a drawing on a leg, a bit reminiscent of blood vessels. In boletus and boletus boletus, the leg is covered with scales and looks completely different.
Another distinctive characteristic of the gall mushroom is its sharp bitter taste, which cannot be confused with the taste of edible stump. Moreover, after boiling and subsequent heat treatment, the bitterness does not disappear, but even intensifies. But in order to check this difference, the bitterness would have to taste, and this is not recommended, it is better to focus on external signs.
The gall fungus is not poisonous, and accidental consumption does not cause significant health harm. But the taste of the mushroom is too pungent, so any dish that gets bittersweet will be hopelessly spoiled.
Advice! If the mushroom is old, then you can also recognize the bitterness in it by the pulp untouched by insects, the cap and leg are so bitter that even worms and forest flies do not use them for food.
In the absence of experience, edible lumps can be confused with the most poisonous and dangerous mushroom in Russia - pale toadstool. Her leg can also be cylindrical and rather dense, toadstools and caps are similar in size and shape to the cap. The skin of the toadstool is often yellowish-brown, almost the same as that of the boletus and aspen mushrooms. In addition, this poisonous mushroom grows very often under aspen, beech and birch trees, exactly where mushroom pickers expect to meet edible stubs.
But the differences between the species are very noticeable. For pale toadstools are characterized by:
- plates on the lower surface of the cap, while the limbs belong to tubular mushrooms;
- lack of characteristic scales on the leg - the toadstool has a smooth and even leg, sometimes a moire pattern is expressed on it;
- a kind of thickening at the base of the leg, it looks like a separate part of the fruiting body, not at all like the thickening in boletus and boletus.
But the famous ring on the leg of a pale toadstool can not always be found. The ring represents scraps of the covering of the fruiting body and is usually present in young mushrooms, but most often disappears with age. Therefore, it is worth focusing on those signs and differences that persist throughout the entire life cycle.
Taste qualities of mushrooms
Boletus and aspen mushrooms fall into the category of noble or gourmet mushrooms. According to gourmets, their taste is second only to porcini mushrooms. Obscura can be a good addition to almost any dish.
At the same time, opinions about the taste of the hats and legs of the lumps differ sharply. Mushroom pickers prefer to eat exactly the strong, firm and elastic legs of the fruit bodies. But the hats are much less popular, since they are very soft and acquire an unpleasant, unnecessarily soft consistency.
Benefits and harm to the body
In cooking, obabki are valued not only for their pleasant taste. Mushrooms of this genus have a beneficial effect on the body, since they contain many useful compounds. The mushroom pulp contains:
- vitamins - B1 and B2, PP;
- vitamins E and D;
- ascorbic acid and thiamine;
- potassium and iron;
- magnesium and phosphorus;
- manganese and calcium;
- amino acids - arginine, glutamine and leucine;
- a huge amount of vegetable protein.
The beneficial effect of boletus on the body is expressed in the fact that boletus and aspen mushrooms:
- help improve blood composition and build muscle mass;
- improve metabolism and help the body get rid of toxins;
- equalize blood sugar levels and remove toxins;
- normalize liver and kidney function;
- make up for the lack of vitamins and mineral salts;
- stimulates the immune system and strengthens resistance to disease.
At the same time, with careless use, mushrooms can show their harmful qualities. First of all, they are not advised to use them in the presence of individual intolerance, in this case, even a small amount of mushroom pulp will lead to poisoning.
Also, obabki is not recommended to eat:
- with pancreatitis and ulcers in a state of exacerbation;
- with frequent constipation and sluggish digestion.
Attention! It is better not to offer mushrooms to children under 7 years of age, although the mushrooms are completely harmless, they contain too much protein, and it will be difficult for a sensitive stomach to digest them.
When to collect lumps
Prunus begin to grow quite early. The first boletus and birch trees appear in deciduous forests at the beginning of summer, in the last days of May or June. From this time on, they can be harvested, it is advisable to choose a time after prolonged rains, when the mushrooms grow especially quickly and massively.
Fruiting continues until mid-autumn. You can meet valuable edible mushrooms in the forest in September and even in October before the first frost.
Since the taste of gourmet fruiting bodies is second only to porcini mushrooms, buttocks are really used everywhere in cooking. Boiled mushrooms are added to salads and snacks, birch and aspen trees are fried and consumed with potatoes and meat, their legs and caps give an unusual and very pleasant taste to hot soups. Also, fruiting bodies are often dried and marinated for the winter - you can enjoy the taste of the stump even in the cold winter months.
Edible fruiting bodies do not require any special processing before cooking. You do not need to soak them, you just need to clean the mushrooms from debris, remove the skin from the stem and cut off the tubular layer on the cap. After that, the raw materials are washed and immediately sent to boil in salted water for 30-40 minutes, and after the first 5 minutes of cooking, the water is drained and replaced with fresh water.
In addition to cooking, birch and aspen trees are used for medical purposes. They are suggested to be used by many folk health recipes. It is believed that infusions and tinctures on these mushrooms:
- have a beneficial effect on kidney health;
- help get rid of inflammatory ailments;
- have a good effect on diabetes;
- have a calming and relaxing effect.
Low-calorie lumps can be found in weight loss diets. Due to their high protein content, aspen and birch trees nourish well and help get rid of hunger. But it is impossible to gain weight on mushrooms provided proper nutrition, so the effect for weight loss will only be positive.
Under its name, the mushroom boletus combines mainly boletus and boletus of various species, as well as some other mushrooms that grow in symbiosis with deciduous trees. Obobok is absolutely edible and tastes good, and can be prepared quickly and with little or no pretreatment.